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Last update: May 2021

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Human Nutrition Unit

Zone de texte éditable et éditée et rééditée

Nutrition and Cellular adaptation mechanisms

Nutrition and Cellular adaptation mechanisms
To understand the body's ability to adapt to different types of stress situations (Nutrition...)

Disorders that are associated to both ageing and chronic diseases result from a combination of genetic predispositions and environmental factors. Their occurrence may be promoted by an increased and/or repeated solicitation of the body's adaptation mechanisms to different kinds of aggressions (malnutrition, overnutrition, pathologies, fatigue, hospitalization, immobilization, etc.). Importantly the nutritional needs may be increased in certain deleterious situations (inflammatory conditions for example). During periods of stress, the different tissues respond in a coordinated way so as to obtain an integrated adaptive response that may vary according to the nutritional status. The adaptive response involves the modification of cell functions and metabolic pathways through the modulation molecular signalings. The knowledge of these mechanisms is essential to identify potential levers of action against the occurrence of metabolic disorders. This is a prerequisite to propose interventional strategies and nutritional recommendations adapted to populations at risk or more sensitive during stressful situations. Our goal is therefore to determine the tissue, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the body's ability to adapt to different types of stress situations.

Our strategy is to take into account different levels of study to answer the following questions:
1) What is the result of a given stress situation on the specific needs and bioavailability of nutrients in different tissues?
2) What are the consequences of these stressful situations on tissue and cell function?
3) What are the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved in these adaptations?
4) How can these mechanisms be modulated nutritionally (or possibly pharmacologically), locally at the level of the target tissue or at the level of the whole organism?
5) How are epi-genetic modifications induced by early malnutrition influencing the predisposition to the occurrence of metabolic disorders?