Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal logo Université Clermont Auvergne & associés

Human Nutrition Unit

Zone de texte éditable et éditée et rééditée

Pierre Fafournoux

Team leader

Field of research and research activities

My research project is originated from the observation that mammals cannot synthesize essential amino acids. As a consequence, individuals have to adjust several physiological functions in order to adapt to dietary amino acid deficiency. Such a nutritional situation is very common for omnivorous mammals living in the wild. Preliminary observations suggested that amino acids by themselves are involved in the control of physiological functions. Taken together, these observations have led us to wonder whether amino acids regulate physiological functions through the control of gene expression. In order to answer that question, our project consisted of 3 main objectives: 1- To identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene expression in response to amino acid limitation; 2- To characterize the role of the identified amino acid-regulated signaling pathways in the control of physiological functions; 3- To integrate these data in more complex nutritional or pathological situations.

Major scientific achievements

-First Identification of the Amino Acid Responsive Elements

-Demonstration that amino acid limitation regulates physiological function through the control of gene expression.

-Establishment that the protein kinase GCN2, activated upon amino acid limitation, controls

 feeding behavior to maintain amino acid homeostasis in response to amino acid-imbalanced diet.

-Demonstration that perinatal undernutrition affects the methylation and expression of the leptin gene in adults. This study is an example of a molecular rationale linking transient environmental influences to permanent phenotypic consequences.

-Optimization of a novel nutrition-based regulatory system: a compelling resource in gene therapy


Five most relevant publications

1) Bruhat, A., Jousse, C., Carraro, V., Reimold, A., Ferrara, M., and Fafournoux, P. (2000). Amino acids control mammalian gene transcription: activating transcription factor 2 is essential for the amino-acid responsiveness of the CHOP promoter. Mol Cell Biol, 20(19),7192-7204.

2) Maurin AC,, Jousse C, Averous J, Parry L, Bruhat A, Cherasse Y, Zeng H, Zhang Y, Harding HP, Ron D, Fafournoux P. (2005) The GCN2 kinase biases feeding behavior to maintain amino-acid homeostasis in omnivores, Cell Metabolism 1; 273-277.

3) Jousse C, Parry L, Lambert-Langlais S, Maurin AC, Averous J, Bruhat A, Carraro V, Tost J, Letteron P, Chen P, Jockers R, Launay JM, Mallet J, Fafournoux P. (2011). Perinatal undernutrition affects the methylation and expression of the leptin gene in adults: implication for the understanding of metabolic syndrome. FASEB J. 25 ; 3271-3278

4) Maurin AC, Benani A, Lorsignol A, Brenachot X, Parry L, Carraro V, Guissard C, Averous J, Jousse C, Bruhat A, Chaveroux C, B'chir W, Muranishi Y, Ron D, Pénicaud L, Fafournoux P. Hypothalamic eIF2α signaling regulates food intake. Cell Reports. 2014 Feb 13;6(3):438-44

5) Cédric Chaveroux, Alain Bruhat, Valérie Carraro, Céline Jousse, Julien Averous, Anne-Catherine Maurin, Laurent Parry, Florent Mesclon, Yuki Muranishi, Aline Meulle, Patrick Baril, Anh Do Thi, Philippe Ravassard, Jacques Mallet, and Pierre Fafournoux (2016) Tuning transgene expression with an artificial diet: a compelling resource in gene therapy. Nature Biotechnology 2016 Jul;34(7):746-51.



- Fafournoux P; Bruhat A; Jousse C; Maurin AC; Averous J. New expression cassette comprising a gene of interest linked to an inducible promoter comprising cis-acting regulator element regulator sequence and a minimal promoter, usefull for e.g. treating diseases by gene therapy and genetic disease. Patent numbers : FR2982277-A1 (10 May 2013); WO2013068096-A& (16 May 2013); EP2776568-A1 (17 Sep 2014); US2014322184-A1 (30 octobre 2014). « Inducible expression cassette, and uses thereof » filed in 2012 by INRA and CNRS