Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Clermont Auvergne University


Joint Research Unit 1095 Genetics, Diversity and Ecophysiology of Cereals

Florent Murat

2016 July - Study of the evolutionary and structural plasticity of plant genomes

Angiosperms (or flowering plants) consist in approximatively 350 000 species that have diverged 150 to 200 million years ago in two main families, monocots (orchids, palm trees, banana, bulrushes, grasses…) and dicots (Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, legumes…) representing respectively 20% and 75% of flowering plants. Angiosperms are the subject of intense researches, in particular in genomics since 2000 with the sequence release of the first plant genome (Arabidopsis thaliana) preceding a large number of genomes of plant models and/or species of agronomical interest (around 100 today). Increasing access to plant genome sequences has allowed the identification of their structural diversity, in terms of genome size, number of chromosomes and genes as well as transposable element content. The evolutionary forces that have shaped such structural genomic divergence are at the center of this thesis.

Our paleogenomics approach will investigate, through ancestral genome reconstructions, how modern species have diverged from common ancestors and which mechanisms have contributed to such present-day genome plasticity. In this thesis, we have developed methods based on comparative genomics to study plant genome evolution and reconstruct ancestral genomes, extinct progenitors of the modern angiosperm species. An ancestral angiosperm genome has been reconstructed made of 5 chromosomes and 6707 ordered genes allowing the integration in the same model of monocots and eudicots and finally elucidating evolutionary trajectories for species of major agricultural interest such as cereals, rosids and Brassicaceae. The reconstructed paleohistory of modern flowering plants enabled the identification as well as the investigation of the impact of polyploidy events (WGD, whole genome duplications), ubiquitous in plants, as a major driver of the observed structural plasticity of angiosperms.

We established that genomes tend to return to a diploid status following a polyploidy event. This structural diploidization is performed at the karyotypic level through chromosomal rearrangements (involving ancestral centromeres and telomeres losses) as well as the gene level (through ancestral duplicates loss). It has been shown that this diploidization is preferentially done on one of the post-polyploidy subgenome, leading to the "sub-genome dominance" phenomenon. This structural plasticity bias (also referenced as plasticity partitioning) is acting differentially between species, chromosomes, chromosomal compartments, gene types, resulting in the structural diversity observed between the present-day plant genomes. This thesis is clearly within the scope of fundamental researches but also has a strong applied objective through translational research in creating bridges between species of major relevance for agriculture. The comparison of one species to another through the reconstructed ancestral genomes allows transferring knowledge gained on genes or any region of interest from model species to crops. Paleogenomics, in reconstructing ancestral genome and unveiling the forces driving modern plant genome plasticity, is therefore of fundamental (toward understanding species evolution) but also applied (toward improving orphan species from knowledge gained in models) objectives.

Keywords: Plants, evolution, structure, comparative genomics, ancestors, genes, karyotypes, chromosomes, polyploidization, diploidization, diversity, angiosperms, monocots, dicots, cereals, Brassicaceae.